Why Are Political Campaigns So Expensive?
Last year’s midterm elections were the priciest ever. This is mainly due to the rise of super PACs, which have become increasingly influential since the Supreme Court’s Citizens United decision.
While it’s true that the highest spender usually wins a presidential race, research shows that other factors also play a role in electoral outcomes. This includes name recognition, which is easier to measure than spending.
Campaigns are a form of persuasion
A political campaign is a form of persuasion, and it involves a number of different tactics. For example, candidates must persuade donors to give them money, and they also use persuasive techniques to promote themselves in the media. They often use words like “time is running out” to create a sense of urgency, which can persuade voters to support their cause.
The 2020 election is predicted to be the most expensive in history. According to the Center for Responsive Politics, Trump’s campaign committee already has outspent his Democratic rival by more than $100 million. However, it’s unclear whether spending alone determines an election result. In fact, research suggests that the biggest spenders don’t necessarily win.
They are a form of democracy
While direct democracy is impossible in most modern societies, elections help to ensure that voters can select leaders and hold them accountable for their policies. This accountability is crucial to democratic governance. But it can be undermined when winners rely on large donors or business interests to fund their campaigns. Moreover, it is often unclear whether such donations are made in exchange for specific policy preferences.
Nevertheless, there are some exceptions to this rule. For example, Donald Trump won the Presidency despite being outspent by Hillary Clinton. This is because he was able to exploit the media and generate free publicity, allowing him to gain more exposure than Clinton. In addition, he was able to appeal to voters’ fears of terrorist attacks. In fact, the total amount of money spent on US political campaigns eclipses the annual economic output of small countries like Monaco and Kosovo. Outside spending has also increased, thanks to Supreme Court decisions that allow corporations to spend unlimited funds on independent campaign groups.
They are a form of competition
Many politicians rely on money to compete in elections, and the more they spend, the better their chances of winning. Whether the money comes from wealthy individuals or corporations, it is important to know where it comes from and how it’s used. Fortunately, laws regulate campaign donations and spending and there are non-governmental grassroots groups that monitor the flow of money.
Advertising is one of the most expensive parts of a political campaign, and it can have an effect on voter behavior. Studies show that people tend to vote for candidates they recognize over those they don’t know, and big campaigns help build name recognition.
In contested races, the higher-spending candidate typically wins, but this doesn’t hold true for all races. For example, in a contested race for New Mexico’s 2nd District, Republican challenger Yvette Herrell won, even though she spent $4.1 million less than the incumbent Democrat Xochitl Torres Small. This shows that other factors can influence the outcome of a race, including the number of voters in a district and how much they are engaged in politics.
They are a form of fundraising
Political campaigns require huge amounts of money. In 2016, for example, candidates, parties and independent campaign groups spent more than US$6.5 billion – which is more than the total economic output of some small countries. This money is largely spent on advertising. But studies suggest that ads do not have much impact on voters.
But even if a candidate’s message does not change the minds of voters, it still needs to get out there. That requires massive spending on television commercials, and in expensive media markets in key states. And that’s not even counting the cost of other things, like catering and stadium rental.
These are all expensive, but they are necessary to run a successful campaign. In the end, it all comes down to fundraising. This is where the big dollars come from — wealthy donors, who give tens of thousands of dollars to a campaign. And they often receive a quid pro quo in return, such as access to VIP events or endorsements.